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First Chief Rabbi in Istanbul: Rabbi Moshe Capsali

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Rabbi 0shak Haleva (2002-Present)

In 1453, when the Turkish Sultan Mehmed II conquered Istanbul from the Byzantine Empire, he selected Rabbi Moshe to guide the affairs of all the Jews living in the vast Ottoman Empire, most of whom were Greek-speaking Jews known as Romaniotes. This was thirty-nine years prior to the Sephardim’s arrival in Turkey after the Spanish Expulsion of 1492.

After arriving in Istanbul, Sephardic Jews would move out to their permanent homes, which the various communal organizations found for them, settling in the different districts of Constantinople such as Ortakoy and Kuzguncuk, as well as Haskoy and Balat.

Rabbi Capsali became the official representative of the Jewish people and had a seat in the Divan (Imperial Council). Rabbi Moshe Capsali's rank was higher than that of the Christian patriarch, being next to the chief spiritual leader of the Muslims.

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Rabbi Mose Becerano (1920-1931)

He was born in Candia on the Island of Crete (Girit) in 1420. Not much is known about Rabbi Moshe Capsali's earlier life, except that he came from a prominent Jewish family, and that he studied the Torah in several important Yeshiva in Germany and other places. When he came to Constantinople, the community was small and poor. He was appointed a Dayyan (member of the Jewish Beth-Din, or Court). But, as we have seen above, after the city was conquered by the Turks, he became the Chief Rabbi, and his great gifts of leadership made him famous. Rabbi Moshe Capsali used his high office wisely, and he did much to help the growth of the Jewish communities in the Turkish empire.

He appointed qualified rabbis and communal leaders, and personally supervised all the affairs of the Jewish communities. He was also responsible for the taxes which the Jews had to pay to the Sultan. This was an important source of revenue for the Sultan; as the Jews had done well in developing the industry and commerce of the country.

Despite his high. position, Rabbi Moshe Capsali was always very humble, and he lived very simply and modestly. He spent much time in fasting and praying, and it was small wonder that he was loved and respected by all who knew him.

Towards the last years of his life, the great tragedy of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain took place (in 1492). Rabbi Moshe Capsali, his advanced age notwithstanding, threw himself body and soul into a great effort to help the victims. He personally traveled to various Jewish communities in his country to collect funds for Pidyon Shvuim, to redeem the Jewish refugees from Spain who had been captured by pirates and threatened with slavery.
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Rabbi Haim Nahum Efendi. (1908-1920)

He also imposed a special tax, by the authority granted him by the Sultan, on Jewish communities in the Turkish empire, for the purpose of helping the Jewish refugees from Spain. Many of them were brought to Constantinople and welcomed with open arms by their more fortunate brethren.


Rabbi Moshe Capsali, at the age of 75, died three years after these first refugees arrived in Istanbul, and after his death, the work was continued by his successor as Haham Bashi, who was Rabbi Eliyahu Mizrahi. In 1497, when the kingdom of Portugal also expelled all of the Jews, it fell on Rabbi Mizrahi to make these converted or Portuguese refugees welcome and comfortable.

(Source: By Nissan Mindel, Kehot Publication Society)

CHIEF RABBIS OF ISTANBUL (1453 – 1835) *
Moşe Kapsali                                        1453    1496
Eliyau Mizrahi                                         1496    1526
Tam ben Yahya                                          ?       1542
Eli Benjamen Ha-Levi                               ?         ?
Menahem Behar Samuel                         ?         ?
Eli Ben Haim                                         1575     1602
Yahiel Bassan                                            ?      1625
Yasef Mitrani                                               ?      1639
Yomtov Ben Yaeş                                 1639     1660
Yomtov Ben Hananya ben Yakar       1660    1677
Haim Kamhi                                                ?      1730
Yuda Ben Rey                                             ?         ?
Samuel Levi                                           1727       ?
Abraham ben Haim Rosanes                ?       1743
Salamon Haim Alfandari                     1757?     ?
Meir İshaki                                                  ?          ?
Eliyau Palombo                                     1762       ?
Haim Yaakov  Ben Yakar                        ?           ?
    
CHIEF RABBIS OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE
(AFTER ESTABLISHMENT OF OFFICIAL OTTOMAN CHIEF RABBI POSITION)
Abraham Levi                    1835    1836
Samuel Haim                    1837    1839
Moşe Fresko                      1839    1841
Yaakov Behar David         1841    1854
Haim Ha-Kohen                1854    1860
Yaakov Avigdor                  1860    1863
Yakir Geron (1)                  1863    1872
Moşe Levi (1)                     1872    1908
Haim Nahum Efendi        1908    1920    
Sabetay Levi (2)        May 1910 and September 1912
İsak Ariel (2)        November 1918 and September 1919

(1) Kaimakam of Chief Rabbi (Locum Tenens)
(2) Interim position


REPUBLIC OF TURKEY
Haim Moşe Becerano (3)    1920    1931    
Haim İsak Şaki (4)                1931    1940    
Rafael David Saban (4)       1940    1952    
Rafael David Saban (5)       1952    1960    
David Asseo (6)                    1961    2002    
İshak Haleva (7)                    2002    Present    

(3) Kaimakam of Chief Rabbi (Locum Tenens)
(4) As president of Bet Din
(5) First Chief Rabbi of Turkish Republic
(6) Second Chief Rabbi of Turkish Republic
(7) Third Chief Rabbi of Turkish Republic

Source: Compiled and prepared by Naim A. Güleryüz
(Photos: Courtesy of 500. Yil Vakfi)

Last modified onSaturday, 06 May 2017 10:07

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